Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan

Full name: Republic of Kyrgyzstan
By the ethnonym of the people - Kyrgyz

CONTENTS:

Additional information:
 1. State Symbols



The capital: Bishkek
Location: northeast of the Central Asia
Area: 198,500 sq km
Geographic coordinates: 39 and 43 N
Neighboring countries: Kazakhstan, China, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan
Land boundaries: in the southeast with China - 858 km, in the North with Kazakhstan - 1,051 km, in the southwest with Tajikistan - 870 km, in the West with Uzbekistan - 1,099 km
Note: the territory of the Republic lies from the West to the East for 900 km, from the North to the South for 410 km

Geographical location and nature


Map of Kyrgyzstan

The country is in the north-eastern Central Asia. In the west borders with Uzbekistan (the length of the border is 1,099 km), in the north - with Kazakhstan (1,051 km), to the south - with Tajikistan (870 km) and China (858 km). The total length of the border is 3,878 km. The total area of the country is 198,500 sq km. In the south-west of the country is the mountainous system of Pamir-Altai. In the north-east is the Tien Shan with the highest point in the country - Victory Peak (7,439 m). Mountain ranges are separated by high mountain valleys and basins: in the north by Chui and Talas; in the south-west by Fergana; in the south - Alai. Main river - Naryn. The largest lake - Lake Issyk-Kul. The country is rich in gold, antimony, mercury, coal, oil, gas, among other natural resources- hydropower potential. Arable land occupies 7% of the territory, meadows and pastures - 42%.


Administrative division

Administrative Divisions of Kyrgyzstan
No.  Full Name Administration Center
  City of the Republican Value:
1. Bishkek Capital
2. Osh  
  Provinces:
1. Batken Province Batken
2. Jalal-Abad Province Jalal-Abad
3. Issyk-Kul Province Karakol
4. Naryn Province Naryn
5. Osh Province Osh
6. Talas Province Talas
7. Chui Province Bishkek

Population

The population is 5,482,000 people (2009), the average population density is about 27 persons per sq km. About half of the population - Kyrgyz (69,9%), Russian - (8,6%), Uzbeks - 14,5%, in the country also live Ukrainians, Tatars, Germans, Kazakhs, Uyghur, Tajiks. The official language is Kyrgyz, Russian is also widely used. Most of the people in the country are Sunni Muslim, among the believers there are also Christians (mostly Orthodox). Life expectancy: men - 64 years, women - 72 years.


Climate

In Kyrgyzstan are hot summers, very cold winters (especially in the mountains), large contrasts are in the seasonal and daily temperatures, precipitation distribution are various. The warmest place is in the Fergana Valley, July temperatures in Bishkek - 40 degrees Celsius. Average temperature in January is -15 degrees Celsius (in the valleys is warmer, in the mountains - up to -28 degrees Celsius). In winter there is a lot of snow in the mountains. In the western part of the country are abundant precipitation in winter - up to 1,500 mm per year, on the highlands of the Tian Shan - only 200-400 mm, mainly in summer.


Flora

Among the flora of Kyrgyzstan are not less than a quarter of species - endemics (found nowhere else). In the mountain forests growing Tien Shan spruce, walnut, fir, juniper. Highlands are rich with alpine short grasses.


Fauna

Animals world is varied in accordance with the landscape. Deserts - the realm of rodents (gophers, jerboa, voles), reptiles (steppe turtles, arrow-snakes, gray varan, agama). The mountains are inhabited by a bear, lynx, wolf, badger, weasel, marten, roe. Among the birds - little bustard, bustard, eagle, vulture, hawk, rare mountain turkey - snowcock.


Government type

The political system - Presidential Republic. Capital - Bishkek. The country is divided into 6 regions. The independence of Kyrgyzstan was proclaimed in 1991 after the collapse of the USSR (before - Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic). National Day - August 31 - Independence Day.


Economy, transport communications

The economy is in the stage of transition to the market forms of management. In the country is actively implementing a program of economic reforms, carried out the privatization of the state property. The most developed industries - non-ferrous metallurgy, machine building, light and food industries. Key sectors of agriculture - livestock (sheep, horses, cattle), cotton, fruit and vegetables, melons and tobacco. Exports - wool, cotton, tobacco, electric power, non-ferrous metals, beverages. GNP in 2008 amounted to 5 billion US dollars (per capita ? 1,000 US dollars). Currency unit - som (KGS), 1 som = 100 tiyin. Among major trading partners: Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and other CIS countries.

The total length of the railways - 370 km, auto roads - 30,300 km (22,600 km - paved).


History

From 6th century to 12th century the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan was part of the Turkic Kaganate. Conquered in 13th century by Mongols, in 17th century Kyrgyzstan became a part of the Oirat Khanate, in early 19th century ? a part of Kokand Khanate. In 1870 the country became a part of the Russian Empire and became a part of Turkestan province. In 1918 there was established the Soviet power. The part of Turkestan republic from 1918, Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Region from 1924, the Kirghiz Autonomous Region from 1926, the country has received the status of the Union Republic in 1936. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Kyrgyzstan declared its independence on August 31, 1991.


Places of interest

Burana Tower Church of the Holy Trinity Cathedral of the Resurrection
Burana Tower Church of the Holy Trinity Cathedral of the Resurrection

Lake Issyk-Kul Petroglyphs of Saimaluu-Tash Tian Shan Mountains
Lake Issyk-Kul Petroglyphs of Saimaluu-Tash Tian Shan Mountains

There are popular resorts in the country, located in the picturesque places: Ak-Suu, Jeti-Oguz, Issyk-Ata and others. Hikers are attracted with the mountain peaks, such as Victory Peak, Lenin Peak.


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